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1. Preliminary investigation of the radiosensitizing activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in tumor-bearing mice.

Rao SK, Rao PS, Rao BN.

Department of Pharmacognosy, C. U. Shah College of Pharmacy & Research, Wadhwan, India. shaivalrao@gmail.com

The radiosensitizing activity of dichloromethane extract of guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (WILLD.) MIERS ex HOOK. F. & THOMS. Family: Menispermaceae (TCE)] in the mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) was investigated. The EAC mice received 0, 25, 30, 40, 50 or 100 mg/kg b.wt. TCE 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy hemi-body gamma-radiation and then once daily for another eight consecutive days after irradiation. The EAC mice receiving TCE for the above regimen showed a dose-dependent elevation in tumor-free survival; the highest radiosensitizing activity was observed at 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE. Treatment of animals with 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE, 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy of hemi-body gamma irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six consecutive days post-irradiation increased the life span of EAC mice. This is evident by more number of long-term survivors (LTS) as well as survivors beyond 120 days when compared to the group of animals that received TCE after irradiation for six consecutive days. Treatment modality was also altered to assess the radiosensitizing effect of TCE before and after irradiation. Evaluation of glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPx) in mice treated with TCE 1 h before irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six days showed a significant decline in GSH up to 14 h and GST up to 24 h accompanied by a significant elevation in LPx at 12 h post-irradiation. The radiosensitization of TCE may be due to depletion of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase, accompanied by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage of tumor cells. Since Tinospora cordifolia is being used in India for treatment of various ailments, it may offer an alternative treatment strategy for cancer in combination with gamma radiation.

PMID: 18803246 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


2. Chemopreventive potential of an Indian medicinal plant (Tinospora cordifolia) on skin carcinogenesis in mice.

Chaudhary R, Jahan S, Goyal PK.

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302 004, India.

Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), an Indian medicinal plant, was used to explore antitumor promoting activity in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. For this purpose, mice were treated by single application of DMBA (100 microg/100 microl of acetone) and two weeks later promoted by croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week) until the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 weeks). Oral administration of the above extract at the preinitiational stage (i.e., seven days before and seven days after DMBA application; group IV), promotional stage (i.e., from the time of croton oil application; group V), and both pre- and postintiational stage (i.e., from the time of DMBA application and continued until the end of the experiment; group VI; on the shaven backs of the mice at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 16 weeks) recorded significant reduction in tumor weight, tumor incidence in comparison to control (i.e., mice treated with DMBA and croton oil; group III). Furthermore, cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield, tumor burden, and tumor weight showed significant reduction along with significant elevation of phase II detoxifying enzymes, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver and skin in the animals administered with such plant extract concomitant to carcinogen exposure. Thus, the present data strongly suggests that the Tinospora cordifolia extract has anti-tumor potential in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis mouse model.

PMID: 18652570 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3.Characterisation of bhringaraj and guduchi herb by ICP-MS analysis, optical absorption, infrared and EPR spectroscopic methods.

Reddy SL, Fayazuddin M, Reddy NC, Ahmad A, Reddy GS, Rao PS, Reddy BJ, Frost RL.

Department of Physics, S.V.D. College, Kadapa 516003, India. slreddy_in@yahoo.com

Leaves of bhringaraj and guduchi herb of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India, are dried and powdered. ICP-MS analysis of samples indicates that copper is present in both the samples. An EPR study of guduchi sample also confirms the presence of Fe(III) whereas Eclipta alba confirms the presence of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum of guduchi indicates that Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. NIR and IR results are due to carbonate fundamentals.

PMID: 18280774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


4.Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Dichloromethane Extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hook F & THOMS) on Cultured HeLa Cells.

Jagetia GC, Rao SK.

Extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) have been shown to possess anti-tumor properties, but the mechanism of the anti-tumor function of TCE is poorly understood. This investigation elucidates the possible mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of dichlormethane extracts of TCE, after selecting optimal duration and concentration for treatment. HeLa cells were exposed to various concentrations of TCE, which has resulted in a concentration-dependent decline in the clonogenicity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and a concentration-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) with a peak at 4 h and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release with a peak at 2 h. Our results suggest that the cytotoxic effect of TCE may be due to lipid peroxidation and release of LDH and decline in GST.

PMID: 16786058 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC1475936

5.Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice.

Jagetia GC, Rao SK.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. gc.jagetia@gmail.com

The anticancer activity of dichloromethane extract of guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F. & Thoms. Family: Menispermaceae (TCE)] in the mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) was investigated. The EAC mice receiving 25, 30, 40, 50 and 100 mg/kg, TCE showed a dose dependent elevation in tumor-free survival and a highest number of survivors were observed at 50 mg/kg TCE, which was considered as an optimum dose for its neoplastic action. The average survival time (AST) and median survival time (MST) for this dose were approximately 56 and 55 d, respectively when compared with 19 d of non-drug treated controls. Administration of 50 mg/kg TCE resulted in 100% long-term survivors (up to 90 d). An attempt was also made to evaluate the effectiveness of TCE in the various stages of tumor development, where 50 mg/kg TCE was administered intraperitoneally after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 d of tumor inoculation and these days have been arbitrarily designated as stage I, II, III, IV or V, respectively for reasons of clarity. The greatest anticancer activity was recorded for stage I, II and III where number of long term survivors (LTS) was approximately 33, 25 and 17%, respectively. However, treatment of mice at stage IV and V did not increase LTS, despite an increase in AST and MST. The EAC mice receiving 50 mg/kg TCE showed a time dependent depletion in the glutathione (GSH) activity up to 12 h post-treatment and marginal elevation thereafter. This depletion in GSH was accompanied by a drastic elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPx) and a maximum elevation in LPx was observed at 6 h that declined gradually thereafter. TCE exerted cytotoxic effect on tumor cells by reducing the GSH concentration and increase in LPx simultaneously.

PMID: 16508146 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


6.An experimental study of some indigenous drugs with special reference to hydraulic permeability.

Upadhyay L, Mehrotra A, Srivastava AK, Rai NP, Tripathi K.

Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

The effect of commonly used indigenous drugs for hepatic disorders i.e. Tinospora cordifolia, (Guduchi/Amrita), Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutki), Phyllantnus niruri (Bhoomyamalaki) and Berberis aristata (Daruharidra) was tested on the hydraulic permeability of water in the presence of bile salt through a transport cell model. The data on hydraulic permeability were calculated as t (time). JV = Lp x AP, where Lp = hydraulic conductivity and AP is the pressure difference. It was observed that the value of controlled hydraulic permeability (0.49 x 10(-8) M3 S(-1) N(-1)) decreased in the presence of indigenous drugs and bile salt. The results suggest that these drugs might have the cell membrane stabilizing property which may lead to prevention of the toxic effect of bile salts in various hepatic disorders.

PMID: 12018531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


7.Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in cultured HeLa cells.

Jagetia GC, Nayak V, Vidyasagar MS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

Exposure of HeLa cells to 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml of guduchi extracts (methanol, aqueous and methylene chloride) resulted in a dose-dependent but significant increase in cell killing, when compared to non-drug-treated controls. The effects of methanol and aqueous extracts were almost identical. However, methylene chloride extract enhanced the cell killing effect by 2.8- and 6.8-fold when compared either to methanol or aqueous extract at 50 and 100 microg/ml, respectively. Conversely, the frequency of micronuclei increased in a concentration-dependent manner in guduchi-treated groups and this increase in the frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher than the non-drug-treated control cultures and also with respect to 5 microg/ml guduchi extract-treated cultures, at the rest of the concentrations evaluated. Furthermore, the micronuclei formation was higher in the methylene chloride extract-treated group than in the other two groups. The dose response relationship for all three extracts evaluated was linear quadratic. The effect of guduchi extracts was comparable or better than doxorubicin treatment. The micronuclei induction was correlated with the surviving fraction of cells and the correlation between cell survival and micronuclei induction was found to be linear quadratic. Our results demonstrate that guduchi killed the cells very effectively in vitro and deserves attention as an antineoplastic agent.

PMID: 9619860 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Sources :- http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov